(b) Each reciprocating engine installation must have at least two separate air intake sources and must meet the following:
(1) Primary air intakes may open within the cowling if that part of the cowling is isolated from the engine accessory section by a fire-resistant diaphragm or if there are means to prevent the emergence of backfire flames.
(2) Each alternate air intake must be located in a sheltered position and may not open within the cowling if the emergence of backfire flames will result in a hazard.
(3) The supplying of air to the engine through the alternate air intake system may not result in a loss of excessive power in addition to the power loss due to the rise in air temperature.
(4) Each automatic alternate air door must have an override means accessible to the flight crew.
(5) Each automatic alternate air door must have a means to indicate to the flight crew when it is not closed.
(c) For turbine engine powered airplanes—
(1) There must be means to prevent hazardous quantities of fuel leakage or overflow from drains, vents, or other components of flammable fluid systems from entering the engine intake system; and
(2) The airplane must be designed to prevent water or slush on the runway, taxiway, or other airport operating surfaces from being directed into the engine or auxiliary power unit air intake ducts in hazardous quantities. The air intake ducts must be located or protected so as to minimize the hazard of ingestion of foreign matter during takeoff, landing, and taxiing.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 23–7, 34 FR 13095, Aug. 13, 1969; Amdt. 23–43, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, 1993; 58 FR 27060, May 6, 1993; Amdt. 23–51, 61 FR 5137, Feb. 9, 1996]