(1) The system limit loads need not exceed the higher of the loads that can be produced by the pilot and automatic devices operating the controls. However, autopilot forces need not be added to pilot forces. The system must be designed for the maximum effort of the pilot or autopilot, whichever is higher. In addition, if the pilot and the autopilot act in opposition, the part of the system between them may be designed for the maximum effort of the one that imposes the lesser load. Pilot forces used for design need not exceed the maximum forces prescribed in §23.397(b).
(2) The design must, in any case, provide a rugged system for service use, considering jamming, ground gusts, taxiing downwind, control inertia, and friction. Compliance with this subparagraph may be shown by designing for loads resulting from application of the minimum forces prescribed in §23.397(b).
(b) A 125 percent factor on computed hinge moments must be used to design elevator, aileron, and rudder systems. However, a factor as low as 1.0 may be used if hinge moments are based on accurate flight test data, the exact reduction depending upon the accuracy and reliability of the data.
(c) Pilot forces used for design are assumed to act at the appropriate control grips or pads as they would in flight, and to react at the attachments of the control system to the control surface horns.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 23–7, 34 FR 13089, Aug. 13, 1969]