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Federal Aviation Regulations

Sec. 25.729 — Retracting mechanism.

(a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply:

(1) The landing gear retracting mechanism, wheel well doors, and supporting structure, must be designed for—

(i) The loads occurring in the flight conditions when the gear is in the retracted position,

(ii) The combination of friction loads, inertia loads, brake torque loads, air loads, and gyroscopic loads resulting from the wheels rotating at a peripheral speed equal to 1.3 V s(with the flaps in takeoff position at design takeoff weight), occurring during retraction and extension at any airspeed up to 1.6 V s1(with the flaps in the approach position at design landing weight), and

(iii) Any load factor up to those specified in §25.345(a) for the flaps extended condition.

(2) Unless there are other means to decelerate the airplane in flight at this speed, the landing gear, the retracting mechanism, and the airplane structure (including wheel well doors) must be designed to withstand the flight loads occurring with the landing gear in the extended position at any speed up to 0.67 V C.

(3) Landing gear doors, their operating mechanism, and their supporting structures must be designed for the yawing maneuvers prescribed for the airplane in addition to the conditions of airspeed and load factor prescribed in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section.

(b) Landing gear lock. There must be positive means to keep the landing gear extended, in flight and on the ground.

(c) Emergency operation. There must be an emergency means for extending the landing gear in the event of—

(1) Any reasonably probable failure in the normal retraction system; or

(2) The failure of any single source of hydraulic, electric, or equivalent energy supply.

(d) Operation test. The proper functioning of the retracting mechanism must be shown by operation tests.

(e) Position indicator and warning device. If a retractable landing gear is used, there must be a landing gear position indicator (as well as necessary switches to actuate the indicator) or other means to inform the pilot that the gear is secured in the extended (or retracted) position. This means must be designed as follows:

(1) If switches are used, they must be located and coupled to the landing gear mechanical systems in a manner that prevents an erroneous indication of “down and locked” if the landing gear is not in a fully extended position, or of “up and locked” if the landing gear is not in the fully retracted position. The switches may be located where they are operated by the actual landing gear locking latch or device.

(2) The flightcrew must be given an aural warning that functions continuously, or is periodically repeated, if a landing is attempted when the landing gear is not locked down.

(3) The warning must be given in sufficient time to allow the landing gear to be locked down or a go-around to be made.

(4) There must not be a manual shut-off means readily available to the flightcrew for the warning required by paragraph (e)(2) of this section such that it could be operated instinctively, inadvertently, or by habitual reflexive action.

(5) The system used to generate the aural warning must be designed to eliminate false or inappropriate alerts.

(6) Failures of systems used to inhibit the landing gear aural warning, that would prevent the warning system from operating, must be improbable.

(f) Protection of equipment in wheel wells. Equipment that is essential to safe operation of the airplane and that is located in wheel wells must be protected from the damaging effects of—

(1) A bursting tire, unless it is shown that a tire cannot burst from overheat; and

(2) A loose tire tread, unless it is shown that a loose tire tread cannot cause damage.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970; Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29777, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25–75, 56 FR 63762, Dec. 5, 1991]

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