(1) Each pilot compartment must be arranged to give the pilots a sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted view, to enable them to safely perform any maneuvers within the operating limitations of the airplane, including taxiing takeoff, approach, and landing.
(2) Each pilot compartment must be free of glare and reflection that could interfere with the normal duties of the minimum flight crew (established under §25.1523). This must be shown in day and night flight tests under nonprecipitation conditions.
(b) Precipitation conditions. For precipitation conditions, the following apply:
(1) The airplane must have a means to maintain a clear portion of the windshield, during precipitation conditions, sufficient for both pilots to have a sufficiently extensive view along the flight path in normal flight attitudes of the airplane. This means must be designed to function, without continuous attention on the part of the crew, in—
(i) Heavy rain at speeds up to 1.5 VSR1with lift and drag devices retracted; and
(ii) The icing conditions specified in §25.1419 if certification for flight in icing conditions is requested.
(2) The first pilot must have—
(i) A window that is openable under the conditions prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section when the cabin is not pressurized, provides the view specified in that paragraph, and gives sufficient protection from the elements against impairment of the pilot's vision; or
(ii) An alternate means to maintain a clear view under the conditions specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, considering the probable damage due to a severe hail encounter.
(c) Internal windshield and window fogging. The airplane must have a means to prevent fogging of the internal portions of the windshield and window panels over an area which would provide the visibility specified in paragraph (a) of this section under all internal and external ambient conditions, including precipitation conditions, in which the airplane is intended to be operated.
(d) Fixed markers or other guides must be installed at each pilot station to enable the pilots to position themselves in their seats for an optimum combination of outside visibility and instrument scan. If lighted markers or guides are used they must comply with the requirements specified in §25.1381.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970; Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29778, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25–108, 67 FR 70827, Nov. 26, 2002; Amdt. 25–121, 72 FR 44669, Aug. 8, 2007]