(b) The examination. The practical examination consists of a ground test and a flight test as itemized on the examination check sheet. Each item must be completed satisfactorily in order for the applicant to obtain a passing grade. Items 5, 6, 7 of the ground test may be completed orally, and items 17, 22, 23, 34, 36, 37, 38, and 39 of the flight test may be completed by an oral examination when a lack of ground facilities or navigation equipment makes such procedure necessary. In these cases a notation to that effect shall be made in the “Remarks” space on the check sheet.
(c) Examination procedure. (1) An applicant will provide an aircraft in which celestial observations can be taken in all directions. Minimum equipment shall include a table for plotting, a drift meter or absolute altimeter, an instrument for taking visual bearings, and a radio direction finder.
(2) More than one flight may be used to complete the flight test and any type of flight pattern may be used. The test will be conducted chiefly over water whenever practicable, and without regard to radio range legs or radials. If the test is conducted chiefly over land, a chart should be used which shows very little or no topographical and aeronautical data. The total flight time will cover a period of at least four hours. Only one applicant may be examined at one time, and no applicant may perform other than navigator duties during the examination.
(3) When the test is conducted with an aircraft belonging to an air carrier, the navigation procedures should conform with those set forth in the carrier's operations manual. Items of the flight test which are not performed during the routine navigation of the flight will be completed by oral examination after the flight or at times during flight which the applicant indicates may be used for tests on those items. Since in-flight weather conditions, the reliability of the weather forecast, and the stability of the aircraft will have considerable effect on an applicant's performance, good judgment must be used by the agent or examiner in evaluating the tests.
(d) Ground test. For the ground test, in the order of the numbered items on the examination check sheet, an applicant will be required to:
(1) Identify without a star identifier, at least six navigational stars and all planets available for navigation at the time of the examination and explain the method of identification.
(2) Identify two additional stars with a star identifier or sky diagrams and explain identification procedure.
(3) Precompute a time-altitude curve for a period of about 20 minutes and take 10 single observations of a celestial body which is rising or setting rapidly. The intervals between observations should be at least one minute. Mark each observation on the graph to show accuracy. All observations, after corrections, shall plot within 8 minutes of arc from the time-altitude curve, and the average error shall not exceed 5 minutes of arc.
(4) Take and plot one 3-star fix and 3 LOP's of the sun. Plotted fix or an average of LOP's must fall within 5 miles of the actual position of the observer.
(5) Demonstrate or explain the compensation and swinging of a liquid-type magnetic compass.
(6) Demonstrate or explain a method of aligning one type of drift meter.
(7) Demonstrate or explain a method of aligning an astro-compass or periscopic sextant.
(e) Flight test. For the flight test, in the order of the numbered items on the examination check sheet, an applicant will be required to:
(1) Demonstrate his ability to read weather symbols and interpret synoptic surface and upper air weather maps with particular emphasis being placed on winds.
(2) Prepare a flight plan by zones from the forecast winds or pressure data of an upper air chart and the operator's data.
(3) Compute from the operator's data the predicted fuel consumption for each zone of the flight, including the alternate.
(4) Determine the point-of-no-return for the flight with all engines running and the equitime point with one engine inoperative. Graphical methods which are part of the company's operations manual may be used for these computations.
(5) Prepare a cruise control (howgozit) chart from the operator's data.
(6) Enter actual fuel consumed on the cruise control chart and interpret the variations of the actual curve from the predicted curve.
(7) Check the presence on board and operating condition of all navigation equipment. Normally a check list will be used. This check will include a time tick or chronometer comparison. Any lack of thoroughness during this check will justify this item being graded unsatisfactory.
(8) Locate emergency equipment, such as, the nearest fire extinguisher, life preserver, life rafts, exits, axe, first aid kits, etc.
(9) Recite the navigator's duties and stations during emergencies for the type of aircraft used for the test.
(10) Demonstrate the proper use of a flux gate compass or gyrosyn compass (when available), with special emphasis on the caging methods and the location of switches, circuit breakers, and fuses. If these compasses are not part of the aircraft's equipment, an oral examination will be given.
(11) Be accurate and use good judgment when setting and altering headings. Erroneous application of variation, deviation, or drift correction, or incorrect measurement of course on the chart will be graded as unsatisfactory.
(12) Demonstrate or explain the use of characteristics of various chart projections used in long-range air navigation, including the plotting of courses and bearings, and the measuring of distances.
(13) Demonstrate ability to identify designated landmarks by the use of a sectional or WAC chart.
(14) Use a computer with facility and accuracy for the computation of winds, drift correction and drift angles, ground speeds, ETA's, fuel loads, etc.
(15) Determine track, ground speed, and wind by the double drift method. When a drift meter is not part of the aircraft's equipment, an oral examination on the use of the drift meter and a double drift problem shall be completed.
(16) Determine ground speed and wind by the timing method with a drift meter. When a drift meter is not part of the aircraft's equipment, an oral examination on the procedure and a problem shall be completed.
(17) Demonstrate the use of air plot for determining wind between fixes and for plotting pressure lines of position when using pressure and absolute altimeter comparisons.
(18) Give ETA's to well defined check points at least once each hour after the second hour of flight. The average error shall not be more than 5 percent of the intervening time intervals, and the maximum error of any one ETA shall not be more than 10 percent.
(19) Demonstrate knowledge and use of D/F equipment and radio facility information. Grading on this item will be based largely on the applicant's selection of those radio aids which will be of most value to his navigation, the manner with which he uses equipment, including filter box controls, and the precision with which he reads bearings. The aircraft's compass heading and all compass corrections must be considered for each bearing.
(20) Use care in tuning to radio stations to insure maximum reception of signal and check for interference signals. Receiver will be checked to ascertain that antenna and BFO (Voice-CW) switches are in correct positions.
(21) Identify at least three radio stations using International Morse code only for identification. The agent or examiner will tune in these stations so that the applicant will have no knowledge of the direction, distance, or frequency of the stations.
(22) Take at least one radio bearing by manual use of the loop. The agent or examiner will check the applicant's bearing by taking a manual bearing on the same station immediately after the applicant.
(23) Show the use of good judgment in evaluating radio bearings, and explain why certain bearings may be of doubtful value.
(24) Determine and apply correctly the correction required to be made to radio bearings before plotting them on a Mercator chart, and demonstrate the ability to plot bearings accurately on charts of the Mercator and Lambert conformal projections.
(25) Compute the compass heading, ETA, and fuel remaining if it is assumed that the flight would be diverted to an alternate airport at a time specified by the agent or examiner.
(26) Check the counter scales of a Loran receiver for accuracy, and explain the basic (face) adjustments which affect tuning and counter alignment. A guide sheet may be used for this test.
(27) Demonstrate a knowledge of the basic principle of Loran and the ability to tune a Loran receiver, to match signals, to read time differences, to plot Loran LOP's, and to identify and use sky waves.
(28) Take and plot bearings from a consol station and explain the precautions which must be taken when tuning a radio receiver for consol signals. Also, discuss those conditions which affect the reliability of consol bearings.
(29) Demonstrate the ability to properly operate and read an absolute altimeter.
(30) Determine the “D” factors for a series of compared readings of an absolute altimeter and a pressure altimeter.
(31) Determine drift angle or lateral displacement from the true headingline by application of Bellamy's formula or a variation thereof.
(32) Interpret the altimeter comparison data with respect to the pressure system found at flight level. From this data evaluate the accuracy of the prognostic weather map used for flight planning and apply this analysis to the navigation of the flight.
(33) Interpret single LOP's for most probable position, and show how a series of single LOP's of the same body may be used to indicate the probable track and ground speed. Also, show how a series of single LOP's (celestial or radio) from the same celestial body or radio station may be used to determine position when the change of azimuth or bearing is 30° or more between observations.
(34) Select one of the celestial LOP's used during the flight and explain how to make a single line of position approach to a point selected by the agent or examiner, giving headings, times, and ETA's.
(35) Demonstrate the proper use of an astro-compass or periscopic sextant for taking bearings.
(36) Determine compass deviation as soon as possible after reaching cruising altitude and whenever there is a change of compass heading of 15° or more.
(37) Take celestial fixes at hourly intervals when conditions permit. The accuracy of these fixes shall be checked by means of a Loran, radio, or visual fix whenever practicable. After allowing for the probable error of a Loran, radio, or visual fix, a celestial fix under favorable conditions should plot within 10 miles of the actual position.
(38) Select celestial bodies for observation, when possible, whose azimuths will differ by approximately 120° for a 3-body fix and will differ by approximately 90° for a 2-body fix. The altitudes of the selected bodies should be between 25° and 75° whenever practicable.
(39) Have POMAR and any other required reports ready for transmission at time of schedule, and be able to inform the pilot in command promptly with regard to the aircraft's position and progress in comparison with the flight plan.
(40) Keep a log with sufficient legible entries to provide a record from which the flight could be retraced.
(41) Note significant weather changes which might influence the drift or ground speed of the aircraft, such as, temperature, “D” factors, frontal conditions, turbulence, etc.
(42) Determine the wind between fixes as a regular practice.
(43) Estimate the time required and average ground speed during a letdown, under conditions specified by the pilot in command.
(44) Work with sufficient speed to determine the aircraft's position hourly by celestial means and also make all other observations and records pertinent to the navigation. The applicant should be able to take the observation, compute, and plot a celestial LOP within a time limit of 8 minutes; take and plot a Loran LOP within a time limit of 3 minutes for ground waves and 4 minutes for sky waves; observe the absolute and pressure altimeters and compute the drift or lateral displacement within a time limit of 3 minutes.
(45) Be accurate in reading instruments and making computations. Errors which are made and corrected without affecting the navigation will be disregarded unless they cause considerable loss of time.
An uncorrected error in computation (including reading instruments and books) which will affect the reported position more than 25 miles, the heading more than 3°, or any ETA more than 15 minutes will cause this item to be graded unsatisfactory.
(46) Be alert to changing weather or other conditions during flight which might affect the navigation. An applicant should not fail to take celestial observations just prior to encountering a broken or overcast sky condition; and he should not fail to take a bearing on a radio station, which operates at scheduled intervals and which would be a valuable aid to the navigation.
(47) Show a logical choice and sequence in using the various navigation methods according to time and accuracy, and check the positions determined by one method against positions determined by other methods.
(48) Use a logical sequence in performing the various duties of a navigator and plan work according to a schedule. The more important duties should not be neglected for others of less importance.