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Appendix E to Part 121 — Flight Training Requirements

The maneuvers and procedures required by §121.424 of this part for pilot initial, transition, and upgrade flight training are set forth in the certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program and in this appendix and must be performed inflight except that windshear maneuvers and procedures must be performed in an airplane simulator in which the maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized to be accomplished and except to the extent that certain other maneuvers and procedures may be performed in an airplane simulator with a visual system (visual simulator), an airplane simulator without a visual system (nonvisual simulator), a training device, or a static airplane as indicated by the appropriate symbol in the respective column opposite the maneuver or procedure.

Whenever a maneuver or procedure is authorized to be performed in a nonvisual simulator, it may be performed in a visual simulator; when authorized in a training device, it may be performed in a visual or nonvisual simulator, and in some cases, a static airplane. Whenever the requirement may be performed in either a training device or a static airplane, the appropriate symbols are entered in the respective columns.

For the purpose of this appendix, the following symbols mean—

P=Pilot in Command (PIC).S=Second in Command (SIC).B=PIC and SIC.F=Flight Engineer.PJ=PIC transition Jet to Jet.PP=PIC transition Prop. to Prop.SJ=SIC transition Jet to Jet.SP=SIC transition Prop. to Prop.AT=All transition categories (PJ, PP, SJ, SP).PS=SIC upgrading to PIC (same airplane).SF=Flight Engineer upgrading to SIC (same airplane).BU=Both SIC and Flight Engineer upgrading (same airplane).

Flight Training Requirements

Maneuvers/ProceduresInitial trainingTransition trainingUpgrade training
InflightStaticVisual simulatorNonvisual simulatorTraining deviceInflightStaticVisual simulatorNonvisual simulatorTraining deviceInflightStaticVisual simulatorNonvisual simulatorTraining device
As appropriate to the airplane and the operation involved, flight training for pilots must include the following maneuvers and procedures.
I. Preflight:
(a) Visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the airplane, the location of each item to be inspected, and the purpose for inspecting it. If a flight engineer is a required crewmember for the particular type of airplane, the visual inspection may be replaced by using an approved pictorial means that realistically portrays the location and detain of preflight inspection items.BATBU
(b) Use of the prestart check list, appropriate control system checks, starting procedures, radio and electronic equipment checks, and the selection of proper navigation and communications radio facilities and frequencies prior to flightBATBU
(c) Taxiing, sailing, and docking procedures in compliance with instructions issued by the appropriate Traffic Control Authority or by the person conducting the trainingBATBU
(d) Pretakeoff checks that include power-plant checksBATBU
II. Takeoffs:
(a) Normal takeoffs which, for the purpose of this maneuver, begin when the airplane is taxied into position on the runway to be usedBATBU
(b) Takeoffs with instrument conditions simulated at or before reaching an altitude of 100′ above the airport elevationBATBU
(c) Crosswind takeoffsBATBU
(d) Takeoffs with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant—BATBU
(1) At a point after V 1and before V 2that in the judgment of the person conducting the training is appropriate to the airplane type under the prevailing conditions; or
(2) At a point as close as possible after V 1when V 1and V 2or V 1and V Rare identical; or
(3) At the appropriate speed for nontransport category airplanes
For transition training in an airplane group with engines mounted in similar positions, or from wing-mounted engines to aft fuselage-mounted engines, the maneuver may be performed in a nonvisual simulator
(e) Rejected takeoffs accomplished during a normal takeoff run after reaching a reasonable speed determined by giving due consideration to aircraft characteristics, runway length, surface conditions, wind direction and velocity, brake heat energy, and any other pertinent factors that may adversely affect safety or the airplaneBATBU
Training in at least one of the above takeoffs must be accomplished at night. For transitioning pilots this requirement may be met during the operating experience required under §121.434 of this part by performing a normal takeoff at night when a check airman serving as pilot-in-command is occupying a pilot station
III. Flight Maneuvers and Procedures:
(a) Turns with and without spoilersBATBU
(b) Tuck and Mach buffetBATBU
(c) Maximum endurance and maximum range proceduresBATBU
(d) Operation of systems and controls at the flight engineer stationBATPS
(e) Runway and jammed stabilizerBATBU
(f) Normal and abnormal or alternate operation of the following systems and procedures:
(1) PressurizationBATBU
(2) PneumaticBATBU
(3) Air conditioningBATBU
(4) Fuel and oilBBATATBUBU
(5) ElectricalBBATATBUBU
(6) HydraulicBBATATBUBU
(7) Flight controlBBATBUBU
(8) Anti-icing and deicingBATBU
(9) Auto-pilotBATBU
(10) Automatic or other approach aidsBBATSFBU
(11) Stall warning devices, stall avoidance devices, and stability augmentation devicesBBATSFBU
(12) Airborne radar devicesBATBU
(13) Any other systems, devices, or aids availableBATBU
(14) Electrical, hydraulic, flight control, and flight instrument system malfunctioning or failureBBATATBUBU
(15) Landing gear and flap systems failure or malfunctionBBATATBUBU
(16) Failure of navigation or communications equipmentBATBU
(g) Flight emergency procedures that include at least the following:
(1) Powerplant, heater, cargo compartment, cabin, flight deck, wing, and electrical firesBBATATBUBU
(2) Smoke controlBBATATBUBUBU
(3) Powerplant failuresBATBU
(4) Fuel jettisoningBBBBBUBU
(5) Any other emergency procedures outlined in the appropriate flight manualBATBU
(h) Steep turns in each direction. Each steep turn must involve a bank angle of 45° with a heading change of at least 180° but not more than 360°PPJPS
(i) Approaches to stalls in the takeoff configuration (except where the airplane uses only a zero-flap configuration), in the clean configuration, and in the landing configurationBATBU
Training in at least one of the above configurations must be accomplished while in a turn with a bank angle between 15° and 30°
(j) Recovery from specific flight characteristics that are peculiar to the airplane typeBATBU
(k) Instrument procedures that include the following:
(1) Area departure and arrivalBATBU
(2) Use of navigation systems including adherence to assigned radialsBATBU
(3) HoldingBATBU
(l) ILS instrument approaches that include the following:
(1) Normal ILS approachesBATBU
(2) Manually controlled ILS approaches with a simulated failure of one powerplane which occurs before initiating the final approach course and continues to touchdown or through the missed approach procedureBATBU
(m) Instrument approaches and missed approaches other than ILS which include the following:
(1) Nonprecision approaches that the trainee is likely to useBATBU
(2) In addition to subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, at least one other nonprecision approach and missed approach procedure that the trainee is likely to useBATBU
In connection with paragraphs III(k) and III(l), each instrument approach must be performed according to any procedures and limitations approved for the approach facility used. The instrument approach begins when the airplane is over the initial approach fix for the approach procedure being used (or turned over to the final approach controller in the case of GCA approach) and ends when the airplane touches down on the runway or when transition to a missed approach configuration is completed
(n) Circling approaches which include the following:BATBU
(1) That portion of the circling approach to the authorized minimum altitude for the procedure being used must be made under simulated instrument conditions
(2) The circling approach must be made to the authorized minimum circling approach altitude followed by a change in heading and the necessary maneuvering (by visual reference) to maintain a flight path that permits a normal landing on a runway at least 90° from the final approach course of the simulated instrument portion of the approach
(3) The circling approach must be performed without excessive maneuvering, and without exceeding the normal operating limits of the airplane. The angle of bank should not exceed 30°
Training in the circling approach maneuver is not required for a pilot employed by a certificate holder subject to the operating rules of Part 121 of this chapter if the certificate holder's manual prohibits a circling approach in weather conditions below 1000–3 (ceiling and visibility); for a SIC if the certificate holder's manual prohibits the SIC from performing a circling approach in operations under this part
(o) Zero-flap approaches. Training in this maneuver is not required for a particular airplane type if the Administrator has determined that the probability of flap extension failure on that type airplane is extremely remote due to system design. In making this determination, the Administrator determines whether training on slats only and partial flap approaches is necessaryPPP, PJPS
(p) Missed approaches which include the following:
(1) Missed approaches from ILS approachesBATBU
(2) Other missed approachesBATBU
(3) Missed approaches that include a complete approved missed approach procedureBATBU
(4) Missed approaches that include a powerplant failureBATBU
IV. Landings and Approaches to Landings:
(a) Normal landingsBATBU
(b) Landing and go around with the horizontal stabilizer out of trimPPJ, PPPS
(c) Landing in sequence from an ILS instrument approachBATATBU
(d) Cross wind landingBATBU
(e) Maneuvering to a landing with simulated powerplant failure, as follows:
(1) Except as provided in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph in the case of 3–engine airplanes, maneuvering to a landing with an approved procedure that approximates the loss of two powerplants (center and one out-board engine)PPJ, PPPS
(2) Except as provided in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph, in the case of other multiengine airplanes, maneuvering to a landing with a simulated failure of 50 percent of available powerplants with the simulated loss of power on one side of the airplanePPJ, PPPS
(3) Notwithstanding the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph, flight crewmembers who satisfy those requirements in a visual simulator must also:
( i ) Take inflight training in one-engine inoperative landings; and
( ii ) In the case of a second-in-command up-grading to a pilot-in-command and who has not previously performed the maneuvers required by this paragraph in flight, meet the requirements of this paragraph applicable to initial training for pilots-in-command
(4) In the case of flight crewmembers other than the pilot-in-command, perform the maneuver with the simulated loss of power of the most critical powerplant only
(f) Landing under simulated circling approach conditions (exceptions under III(n) applicable to this requirement)BATBU
(g) Rejected landings that include a normal missed approach procedure after the landing is rejected. For the purpose of this maneuver the landing should be rejected at approximately 50 feet and approximately over the runway thresholdBATBU
(h) Zero-flap landings if the Administrator finds that maneuver appropriate for training in the airplanePPP, PJPS
(i) Manual reversion (if appropriate)BATBU
Training in landings and approaches to landings must include the types and conditions provided in IV(a) through (i) but more than one type may be combined where appropriate
Training in one of the above landings must be accomplished at night. For transitioning pilots, this requirement may be met during the operating experience required under §121.434 of this part by performing a normal landing when a check pilot serving as pilot-in-command is occupying a pilot stationBATBU

[Doc. No. 9509, 35 FR 97, Jan. 3, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 121–91, 37 FR 10730, May 27, 1972; Amdt. 121–108, 38 FR 35446, Dec. 28, 1973; Amdt. 121–159, 45 FR 41595, June 19, 1980; Amdt. 121–199, 53 FR 37697, Sept. 27, 1988]

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