(a) An analysis must be performed to establish, on the basis of the airplane's operational needs, the adequacy of the ice protection system for the various components of the airplane. In addition, tests of the ice protection system must be conducted to demonstrate that the airplane is capable of operating safely in continuous maximum and intermittent maximum icing conditions, as described in appendix C of part 25 of this chapter. As used in this section, “Capable of operating safely,” means that airplane performance, controllability, maneuverability, and stability must not be less than that required in part 23, subpart B.
(b) Except as provided by paragraph (c) of this section, in addition to the analysis and physical evaluation prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section, the effectiveness of the ice protection system and its components must be shown by flight tests of the airplane or its components in measured natural atmospheric icing conditions and by one or more of the following tests, as found necessary to determine the adequacy of the ice protection system—
(1) Laboratory dry air or simulated icing tests, or a combination of both, of the components or models of the components.
(2) Flight dry air tests of the ice protection system as a whole, or its individual components.
(3) Flight test of the airplane or its components in measured simulated icing conditions.
(c) If certification with ice protection has been accomplished on prior type certificated airplanes whose designs include components that are thermodynamically and aerodynamically equivalent to those used on a new airplane design, certification of these equivalent components may be accomplished by reference to previously accomplished tests, required in §23.1419 (a) and (b), provided that the applicant accounts for any differences in installation of these components.
(d) A means must be identified or provided for determining the formation of ice on the critical parts of the airplane. Adequate lighting must be provided for the use of this means during night operation. Also, when monitoring of the external surfaces of the airplane by the flight crew is required for operation of the ice protection equipment, external lighting must be provided that is adequate to enable the monitoring to be done at night. Any illumination that is used must be of a type that will not cause glare or reflection that would handicap crewmembers in the performance of their duties. The Airplane Flight Manual or other approved manual material must describe the means of determining ice formation and must contain information for the safe operation of the airplane in icing conditions.
[Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18977, Apr. 9, 1993]