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Federal Aviation Regulations

Sec. 23.473 — Ground load conditions and assumptions.

(a) The ground load requirements of this subpart must be complied with at the design maximum weight except that §§23.479, 23.481, and 23.483 may be complied with at a design landing weight (the highest weight for landing conditions at the maximum descent velocity) allowed under paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) The design landing weight may be as low as—

(1) 95 percent of the maximum weight if the minimum fuel capacity is enough for at least one-half hour of operation at maximum continuous power plus a capacity equal to a fuel weight which is the difference between the design maximum weight and the design landing weight; or

(2) The design maximum weight less the weight of 25 percent of the total fuel capacity.

(c) The design landing weight of a multiengine airplane may be less than that allowed under paragraph (b) of this section if—

(1) The airplane meets the one-engine-inoperative climb requirements of §23.67(b)(1) or (c); and

(2) Compliance is shown with the fuel jettisoning system requirements of §23.1001.

(d) The selected limit vertical inertia load factor at the center of gravity of the airplane for the ground load conditions prescribed in this subpart may not be less than that which would be obtained when landing with a descent velocity ( V ), in feet per second, equal to 4.4 (W/S)1/4, except that this velocity need not be more than 10 feet per second and may not be less than seven feet per second.

(e) Wing lift not exceeding two-thirds of the weight of the airplane may be assumed to exist throughout the landing impact and to act through the center of gravity. The ground reaction load factor may be equal to the inertia load factor minus the ratio of the above assumed wing lift to the airplane weight.

(f) If energy absorption tests are made to determine the limit load factor corresponding to the required limit descent velocities, these tests must be made under §23.723(a).

(g) No inertia load factor used for design purposes may be less than 2.67, nor may the limit ground reaction load factor be less than 2.0 at design maximum weight, unless these lower values will not be exceeded in taxiing at speeds up to takeoff speed over terrain as rough as that expected in service.

[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 23–7, 34 FR 13090, Aug. 13, 1969; Amdt. 23–28, 47 FR 13315, Mar. 29, 1982; Amdt. 23–45, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6, 1993; Amdt. 23–48, 61 FR 5147, Feb. 9, 1996]

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