(b) Design values must be chosen to minimize the probability of structural failure due to material variability. Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, compliance with this paragraph must be shown by selecting design values that ensure material strength with the following probability:
(1) Where applied loads are eventually distributed through a single member within an assembly, the failure of which would result in loss of structural integrity of the component; 99 percent probability with 95 percent confidence.
(2) For redundant structure, in which the failure of individual elements would result in applied loads being safely distributed to other load carrying members; 90 percent probability with 95 percent confidence.
(c) The effects of temperature on allowable stresses used for design in an essential component or structure must be considered where thermal effects are significant under normal operating conditions.
(d) The design of the structure must minimize the probability of catastrophic fatigue failure, particularly at points of stress concentration.
(e) Design values greater than the guaranteed minimums required by this section may be used where only guaranteed minimum values are normally allowed if a “premium selection” of the material is made in which a specimen of each individual item is tested before use to determine that the actual strength properties of that particular item will equal or exceed those used in design.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30 FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23–23, 43 FR 50592, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 23–45, 58 FR 42163, Aug. 6, 1993]