(1) Ten-hour test cycles must be used, except that the test cycle must be extended to include the OEI test of paragraphs (b)(2) and (k), of this section if OEI ratings are requested.
(2) The tests must be conducted on the rotorcraft.
(3) The test torque and rotational speed must be—
(i) Determined by the powerplant limitations; and
(ii) Absorbed by the rotors to be approved for the rotorcraft.
(b) Endurance tests; takeoff run. The takeoff run must be conducted as follows:
(1) Except as prescribed in paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section, the takeoff torque run must consist of 1 hour of alternate runs of 5 minutes at takeoff torque and the maximum speed for use with takeoff torque, and 5 minutes at as low an engine idle speed as practicable. The engine must be declutched from the rotor drive system, and the rotor brake, if furnished and so intended, must be applied during the first minute of the idle run. During the remaining 4 minutes of the idle run, the clutch must be engaged so that the engine drives the rotors at the minimum practical r.p.m. The engine and the rotor drive system must be accelerated at the maximum rate. When declutching the engine, it must be decelerated rapidly enough to allow the operation of the overrunning clutch.
(2) For helicopters for which the use of a 2
(i) Each run must consist of at least one period of 2
(ii) Each run must consist of at least one period, for each engine in sequence, during which that engine simulates a power failure and the remaining engines are run at the 2
(3) For multiengine, turbine-powered rotorcraft for which the use of 30-second/2-minute OEI power is requested, the takeoff run must be conducted as prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section except for the following:
(i) Immediately following any one 5-minute power-on run required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, simulate a failure for each power source in turn, and apply the maximum torque and the maximum speed for use with 30-second OEI power to the remaining affected drive system power inputs for not less than 30 seconds. Each application of 30-second OEI power must be followed by two applications of the maximum torque and the maximum speed for use with the 2 minute OEI power for not less than 2 minutes each; the second application must follow a period at stabilized continuous or 30 minute OEI power (whichever is requested by the applicant). At least one run sequence must be conducted from a simulated “flight idle” condition. When conducted on a bench test, the test sequence must be conducted following stabilization at take-off power.
(ii) For the purpose of this paragraph, an affected power input includes all parts of the rotor drive system which can be adversely affected by the application of higher or asymmetric torque and speed prescribed by the test.
(iii) This test may be conducted on a representative bench test facility when engine limitations either preclude repeated use of this power or would result in premature engine removals during the test. The loads, the vibration frequency, and the methods of application to the affected rotor drive system components must be representative of rotorcraft conditions. Test components must be those used to show compliance with the remainder of this section.
(c) Endurance tests; maximum continuous run. Three hours of continuous operation at maximum continuous torque and the maximum speed for use with maximum continuous torque must be conducted as follows:
(1) The main rotor controls must be operated at a minimum of 15 times each hour through the main rotor pitch positions of maximum vertical thrust, maximum forward thrust component, maximum aft thrust component, maximum left thrust component, and maximum right thrust component, except that the control movements need not produce loads or blade flapping motion exceeding the maximum loads of motions encountered in flight.
(2) The directional controls must be operated at a minimum of 15 times each hour through the control extremes of maximum right turning torque, neutral torque as required by the power applied to the main rotor, and maximum left turning torque.
(3) Each maximum control position must be held for at least 10 seconds, and the rate of change of control position must be at least as rapid as that for normal operation.
(d) Endurance tests; 90 percent of maximum continuous run. One hour of continuous operation at 90 percent of maximum continuous torque and the maximum speed for use with 90 percent of maximum continuous torque must be conducted.
(e) Endurance tests; 80 percent of maximum continuous run. One hour of continuous operation at 80 percent of maximum continuous torque and the minimum speed for use with 80 percent of maximum continuous torque must be conducted.
(f) Endurance tests; 60 percent of maximum continuous run. Two hours or, for helicopters for which the use of either 30-minute OEI power or continuous OEI power is requested, 1 hour of continuous operation at 60 percent of maximum continuous torque and the minimum speed for use with 60 percent of maximum continuous torque must be conducted.
(g) Endurance tests; engine malfunctioning run. It must be determined whether malfunctioning of components, such as the engine fuel or ignition systems, or whether unequal engine power can cause dynamic conditions detrimental to the drive system. If so, a suitable number of hours of operation must be accomplished under those conditions, 1 hour of which must be included in each cycle, and the remaining hours of which must be accomplished at the end of the 20 cycles. If no detrimental condition results, an additional hour of operation in compliance with paragraph (b) of this section must be conducted in accordance with the run schedule of paragraph (b)(1) of this section without consideration of paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(h) Endurance tests; overspeed run. One hour of continuous operation must be conducted at maximum continuous torque and the maximum power-on overspeed expected in service, assuming that speed and torque limiting devices, if any, function properly.
(i) Endurance tests; rotor control positions. When the rotor controls are not being cycled during the tie-down tests, the rotor must be operated, using the procedures prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, to produce each of the maximum thrust positions for the following percentages of test time (except that the control positions need not produce loads or blade flapping motion exceeding the maximum loads or motions encountered in flight):
(1) For full vertical thrust, 20 percent.
(2) For the forward thrust component, 50 percent.
(3) For the right thrust component, 10 percent.
(4) For the left thrust component, 10 percent.
(5) For the aft thrust component, 10 percent.
(j) Endurance tests, clutch and brake engagements. A total of at least 400 clutch and brake engagements, including the engagements of paragraph (b) of this section, must be made during the takeoff torque runs and, if necessary, at each change of torque and speed throughout the test. In each clutch engagement, the shaft on the driven side of the clutch must be accelerated from rest. The clutch engagements must be accomplished at the speed and by the method prescribed by the applicant. During deceleration after each clutch engagement, the engines must be stopped rapidly enough to allow the engines to be automatically disengaged from the rotors and rotor drives. If a rotor brake is installed for stopping the rotor, the clutch, during brake engagements, must be disengaged above 40 percent of maximum continuous rotor speed and the rotors allowed to decelerate to 40 percent of maximum continuous rotor speed, at which time the rotor brake must be applied. If the clutch design does not allow stopping the rotors with the engine running, or if no clutch is provided, the engine must be stopped before each application of the rotor brake, and then immediately be started after the rotors stop.
(k) Endurance tests; OEI power run —(1) 30-minute OEI power run. For rotorcraft for which the use of 30-minute OEI power is requested, a run at 30-minute OEI torque and the maximum speed for use with 30-minute OEI torque must be conducted as follows: For each engine, in sequence, that engine must be inoperative and the remaining engines must be run for a 30-minute period.
(2) Continuous OEI power run. For rotorcraft for which the use of continuous OEI power is requested, a run at continuous OEI torque and the maximum speed for use with continuous OEI torque must be conducted as follows: For each engine, in sequence, that engine must be inoperative and the remaining engines must be run for 1 hour.
(3) The number of periods prescribed in paragraph (k)(1) or (k)(2) of this section may not be less than the number of engines, nor may it be less than two.
(m) Any components that are affected by maneuvering and gust loads must be investigated for the same flight conditions as are the main rotors, and their service lives must be determined by fatigue tests or by other acceptable methods. In addition, a level of safety equal to that of the main rotors must be provided for—
(1) Each component in the rotor drive system whose failure would cause an uncontrolled landing;
(2) Each component essential to the phasing of rotors on multirotor rotorcraft, or that furnishes a driving link for the essential control of rotors in autorotation; and
(3) Each component common to two or more engines on multiengine rotorcraft.
(n) Special tests. Each rotor drive system designed to operate at two or more gear ratios must be subjected to special testing for durations necessary to substantiate the safety of the rotor drive system.
(o) Each part tested as prescribed in this section must be in a serviceable condition at the end of the tests. No intervening disassembly which might affect test results may be conducted.
(p) Endurance tests; operating lubricants. To be approved for use in rotor drive and control systems, lubricants must meet the specifications of lubricants used during the tests prescribed by this section. Additional or alternate lubricants may be qualified by equivalent testing or by comparative analysis of lubricant specifications and rotor drive and control system characteristics. In addition—
(1) At least three 10-hour cycles required by this section must be conducted with transmission and gearbox lubricant temperatures, at the location prescribed for measurement, not lower than the maximum operating temperature for which approval is requested;
(2) For pressure lubricated systems, at least three 10-hour cycles required by this section must be conducted with the lubricant pressure, at the location prescribed for measurement, not higher than the minimum operating pressure for which approval is requested; and
(3) The test conditions of paragraphs (p)(1) and (p)(2) of this section must be applied simultaneously and must be extended to include operation at any one-engine-inoperative rating for which approval is requested.
(Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 604, Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 1354(a), 1421, 1423, 1424), sec. 6(c), Dept. of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1655(c)))
[Doc. No. 5084, 29 FR 16150, Dec. 3, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 29–1, 30 FR 8778, July 13, 1965; Amdt. 29–17, 43 FR 50600, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 29–26, 53 FR 34215, Sept. 2, 1988; Amdt. 29–31, 55 FR 38967, Sept. 21, 1990; Amdt. 29–34, 59 FR 47768, Sept. 16, 1994; Amdt. 29–40, 61 FR 21908, May 10, 1996; Amdt. 29–42, 63 FR 43285, Aug. 12, 1998]